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Health Information Technology Standards

Other Standards

Business Requirements | Technical Standards | Tutorials

Other Standards category includes two main sub-categories as follows: Business Requirements and Technical Standards.

Business Requirements (organization’s business activities) are elicited via the Business Process Analysis used by software engineers to help organizations define their strategic goals and a process to achieve these goals through internal changes to organizational capabilities, including changes to policies, practices, and use of information technology.


Business Requirements
Examples of Standards Development Organizations & Standards Setting Entities Domains
ISO Healthcare (Pharmacy, EHR)
PHII Public Health

ISO - International Organization for Standardization

ISO is a network of national standards institutes from 140 countries working in partnership with international organizations, governments, industry, business, and consumer representatives.

ISO 215 Technical Committee on Health Informatics (ISO/TC 215) works on the standardization of health information and communications technology to allow for compatibility and interoperability between independent systems through the following Working Groups:

  • WG 1: Data Structure
  • WG 2: Messaging and Communications
  • WG 3: Health Concept Representation
  • WG 4: Security
  • WG 5: Health Cards
  • WG 6: Pharmacy and Medication
  • WG 7: Devices
  • WG 8: Business Requirements for Electronic Health Records

The ISO/TC 215 developed standards on business requirements for pharmacists’ services reporting and electronic health record.

ISO/TC 215 Standards List

PHII - Public Health Informatics Institute

PHII, a PHDSC Member, is the National Program Office for Common Ground: Transforming Public Health Information Systems Initiative This is a national initiative funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF). PHII provides management and technical support to 31 grantees to help state and local public health agencies to analyze and redesign public health business processes to better respond to health threats and to define collaboratively a set of information system requirements for technology to strengthen public health agencies.

Technical Standards refer to information technology, telecommunication, and information exchanges standards.

Technical Standards
Examples of Standards Development Organizations Domains
IEEE Information Technology, Telecommunications
ISO Information Technology (SGML, HTML)
ITU Information Technology (Communication Protocols)
SOA Healthcare
W3C Internet, World Wide Web

IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.

The IEEE is a leading developer of standards in telecommunications, information technology, and power generation, e.g., standards on electrical interfaces between systems and networks.

ISO - International Organization for Standardization

ISO is a network of national standards institutes from 140 countries working in partnership with international organizations, governments, industry, business, and consumer representatives.

SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) is system for organizing and tagging elements of a document. SGML was developed and standardized by the ISO in 1986. SGML was used widely to manage large documents that are subject to frequent revisions and need to be printed in different formats. However, the growth of Internet, and especially the World Wide Web, is creating renewed interest in SGML because the World Wide Web uses HTML, which is one way of defining and interpreting tags according to SGML rules.

HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language), the authoring language used to create documents on the World Wide Web. HTML is similar to SGML, although it is not a strict subset. HTML defines the structure and layout of a Web document by using a variety of tags and attributes.

ITU - International Telecommunication Union

ITU is the leading United Nations agency for standardization of information and communication technologies based in Geneva, Switzerland. ITU includes 191 Member States and more than 700 sector members and associates. ITU defines international standards, particularly communications protocols including V.22, V.32, V.34 and V.42 that specify protocols for transmitting data over telephone lines.

SOA - Service Oriented Architecture Consortium

The SOA Consortium is a SOA advocacy group comprised of end users, service providers, and technology vendors, committed to helping successfully adopt SOA by 2010.

Service Oriented Architecture (SOA)is an application architecture in which all functions, or services, are defined using a description language and have invokable interfaces that are called to perform business processes. Each interaction is independent of each and every other interaction and the interconnect protocols of the communicating devices (i.e., the infrastructure components that determine the communication system do not affect the interfaces). Because interfaces are platform-independent, a client from any device using any operating system in any language can use the service. Though built on similar principles, SOA is not the same as Web services, which indicates a collection of technologies, such as SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) and XML (Extensible Markup Language). SOA is more than a set of technologies and runs independent of any specific technologies.

W3C - World Wide Web Consortium

The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is an international consortium of companies involved with the Internet and the Web. The W3C was founded in 1994 by Tim Berners-Lee, the original architect of the World Wide Web. The organization's purpose is to develop open standards so that the web evolves in a single direction rather than being splintered among competing factions.

HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) is the underlying protocol used by the World Wide Web. HTTP defines how messages are formatted and transmitted, and what actions Web servers and browser should take in response to various commands.

XML (Extensible Markup Language) is a specification developed by the W3C. XML is a pared-down version of SGML, designed especially for Web documents. It allows designers to create their own customized tags, enabling the definition, transmission, validation, and interpretation of data between applications and between organizations.

SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) is a lightweight XML-based messaging protocol used to encode the information in Web services request and response messages before sending them over a network. SOAP messages are independent of any operating system or protocol and may be transported using a variety of Internet protocol.